Open Letter from the Rafu Shimpo newspaper

Ethnic newspapers in the U.S. have always had to struggle to survive. I have to admire any ethnic periodical that can stay afloat for 100 years or more. That’s amazing! Rafu Shimpo is a Los Angeles Japanese daily newspaper published in the U.S. since 1903. After 113 years of serving their community, they are reaching a crisis point and are calling upon supporters to subscribe. Read this open letter from publisher and president, Michael Komai.

Rafu-staff-Circa-1920s

Philippine Star

Just posting this for my notes: reference to a newspaper I didn’t know about: The Philippine Star, from Los Angeles, edited (1930s-50s) by Frank Perez, who also wrote for the Philippines Mail (Salinas) in the 1960s-70s. Frank Perez was pointed out to me by Thomas Esmeralda, who teaches at San Jose State U., and I found Perez’s articles in the print copies of the Mail donated to ACE by the daughter of Delfin Cruz, Jenny Cruz Rosa.

Perez’s lengthy, retrospective articles in the Philippines Mail of the late 1960s-70s documented what he saw as troubling changes in the activism and political environment of Filipinos in the Salinas Valley when Filipino urban professionals began migrating into the area. I observed that this change was strongly reflected in the content of the articles in the Mail during that period, in articles that focused increasingly on Philippine issues, and especially in the advertising, which was virtually taken over by full page airline and travel agency ads. The Philippine Star and Frank Perez were mentioned by Dillon Delvo and Ron Perez in an article in online magazine, The FilAm L.A.: Descendants document contributions of ‘manongs’ to the history of Filipino America, Aug. 15, 2014.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and “The Deed of the Six Manila Men”

Deed of the Manila Men

While browsing through various online archives, I occasionally come upon evidence of how Filipinos figured into 19th century Western print culture, usually in the form of the mysterious “Manilla Men.” They are mentioned in novels and essays by Melville, William Dean Howells, and Mark Twain; and Nathaniel Hawthorne briefly mentions sharing a picnic lunch with two Manila Men in a diary entry from 1868. As the Philippine American war heated up, American newspapers employed various writers–such as Lafcadio Hearn–to tell their tales about Filipinos and what they perceived as Filipino culture. This morning, while looking for references to Filipino newspapers in the Library of Congress’ Chronicling America site, I stumbled across a “true” story about a mutiny by Arthur Conan Doyle in — of all places — the Omaha Daily Bee, March 29, 1899: a short story entitled “The Deed of the Six Manila Men.” It was also published in the San Francisco Call, same month and year, with the title “Mutiny of the Flowery Land.” As usual, for those times, the characterization of the Manila Men is pretty unflattering and racist, and also underlines the idea that they were considered untrustworthy:

“The Manila Men appeared to submit to discipline, but there were lowering brows and sidelong glances that warned their officers not to trust them too far. Grumbles came from the forecastle as to the food and water–and the grumbling was perhaps not altogether unreasonable.”

The whole story can be read in one of the two links above, and you can read a Times news report (1864) about it here. A much more detailed and lengthy report of the execution was also published in The Age (Melbourne, Australia), April 15, 1864.

 

 

 

 

 

Reading List

Adding a reading list (see under “Pages”) in the sidebar. It’s a work in progress, and new categories will be added. At this time I’m interested in finding/adding books that provide information on the material production: printing presses, spirit duplicators, and other modes of production used by ethnic presses and publishers; business/community relations and advertising; subscription drives; and the economics of producing ethnic (and especially Filipina/o American and Asian American) periodicals, pamphlets, and ephemera in the early to mid- 20th century.

Reconsidering Filipina/o American Periodicals

Happy to announce that Abraham Ignacio is now collaborating with me on The Commonwealth Cafe project to promote the collection and study of Filipina/o periodicals and writing in the early to mid 20th c. Abe is the author (w/Enrique de la Cruz, Jorge Emmanuel, & Helen Toribio) of The Forbidden Book: The Philippine American War in Political Cartoons. I’m in the process of updating information and articles on the site. Glad to have Abe on board!

This change has prompted me to reconsider and perhaps broaden the scope of this website. I’ve rewritten the introduction, especially in relation to how Filipina/o print media of the early 20th century is relevant to the changing ethnic media of the 21st century. Let me know what you think…

The materials posted about here raise any number of cross-disciplinary and transnational/local questions, for example:

  • What was the relationship between the Philippine press–its editors, publishers, and writers–and the Filipina/o American press pre-WWII?
  • How does the study of advertising in early print media contribute to our understanding of Filipina/o American communities and their allies – then, and now?
  • What has been the relationship between Filipina/o reportage and literature?
  • What was/is the role of testimonio in Filipina/o periodicals?
  • What role did early 20th century ethnic newspapers and journals play in stimulating and supporting literary production among minority writers?
  • What can we learn from examining the modes of material production (e.g. types of presses, staffing, promotion and subscription drives, relationships between local printers and publishers) of early ethnic newspapers?
  • How did gender figure in determining whose writing appeared, and in what context and form, in the periodicals?

The relevance of these materials to our 21st century experience should also be explored: How can the study of 20th century Filipina/o American periodicals contribute to our understanding of the more fluid production, dissemination, and content of diasporic Filipina/o reportage and digital media in the 21st century? To what extent is there continuity between the activism of Filipina/o American newspapers of the past and today’s digital media? What has been gained, and what has been lost?

Pamphlets: Filipino American History in THE TORCH

A pdf copy of The Torch (1930) published by the Philippines Mail (Salinas), is now available for download on the Pamphlets page of this website. This special issue presents a frank discussion about racial conflicts experienced by Filipinos in the Monterey Bay Area and Salinas Valleys during the Great Depression era.

Abe Ignacio’s Discovery

Just found this great article in the Philippine Inquirer.net, which describes how Abe Ignacio, one of the founding authors of The Forbidden Book, became interested in the representation of Filipina/os in American newspapers. Abe’s discovery helps us to reconstruct how Filipina/os were perceived in San Francisco during the early 20th century. Check out the article: “Filipinos in San Francisco a Century Ago.”

Filipina/o students in Berkeley and San Francisco were painfully aware of how they were perceived in the U.S., and they were moved to write about it in The Filipino Student magazine, especially after the 1906 earthquake, when they realized that Filipino victims of the quake were not going to receive any help. General Frederick Funston was in charge of bringing order to the City after the quake and restoring communications infrastructure. Funston was made Brigadier General for his leadership in capturing General Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine-American War. Read more about that in the Editorials & Essays section of this website.

Newspaper and Magazine List and Locator

Happy to be adding more newspapers and magazines to what was previously titled “Bibliography and Locator” but is now titled the Newspaper and Magazine List and Locator. While all the periodicals in the list are currently pre-1946, I’ll be adding up through the 1970s. I’ve discovered that most of the CNP (California Newspaper Project) links are now broken, so over the next week or so I’ll be looking up the correct links and replacing them. Another resource I’ve added is the Library of Congress “Chronicling America” historic American newspaper digital archive.

I will soon be posting information on selected newspapers on this blog in the future.